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美国铝业公司设计出分解雾霾的建筑镶板 清洁空气能力相当于80棵树

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2017家居圈大变革 你准备好了吗? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

河北木家具出口首次突破2亿美元 廊坊占近九成

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

vt. 凌辱,激怒
007系列电影荣誉主题曲之二:凯蒂·朗--《屈服》
I'm amazed that Durant didn't get broken in half back in high school, weighing in at 6'9'', 185 lbs. Lucky for Durant, he doesn't make his money banging against big forwards. He relies on his nasty quick-shot jumper.
美国和英国科学家基于数千份陆地和海洋的每日全球气温监测数据,得出上述发现。
By the time of the Asian crisis of 1997-98, he says, the Fed had become more responsive and pulled back from its tightening cycle on concern that the turmoil in Southeast Asia would affect the US economy.
Zhu Yongxin, a member of the CPPCC National Committee, full-time vice-chairman of the Central Committee of the China Association for Promoting Democracy and vice-president of the Chinese Society of Education, talking about an NPC deputy representing 670,000 electorates.
In an interview with Yicai magazine last week, the chairman of China Construction Bank pointed to the rising tide of non-performing loans as the biggest problem confronting China’s banks.

The winter holiday season will help thin the herd, but the true litmus test will be when a company can introduce a wearable that passes the “turnaround test,” Gilbert says—when a person walks a few steps from their front door and decides to turn around to retrieve a forgotten wearable device like they would a forgotten wallet, keys, or phone.
就业是经济发展的基础,是财富增长的来源,也是居民收入的主渠道。
The new image will replace that of Alexander Hamilton, the nation's first Treasury Secretary, whose portrait has graced the $10 bill since the late 1920s. The redesigned currency will debut in time for the 100th anniversary of the formal ratification of the constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote.
更强的是设计公司Ideo的全球董事总经理伊恩?罗伯茨(Iain Roberts),他问了一个我一点都不感兴趣的问题:“怎样激发人们去洞察潜在机动性或多模式需求?”
那么,这对2015年的油价意味着什么呢?人们对此各执己见。然而,今后12个月的油价走势将由下列五大因素(排名不分先后)决定。

Footnotes

  • 东莞限价升级提醒开发商理性定价
  • "Everywhere I go business owners are seeing an increase in demand," said Gus Faucher, senior economist at PNC Financial Services. "Businesses will have to raise wages to attract or maintain workers."

de下,put放-下放权力-代理
The appointment was announced by Steven Ciobo, the Australian minister for trade, tourism and investment, on Feb 21. The Chairman of the China National Tourism Administration, Li Jinzao, was present.
10.被授予爵位的企鹅
那些原本希望今年凭借战术策略获得些利益的财务顾问和资产配置人员,也在反复无常的市场中栽了跟头。全美前三位的战术策略产品中,有两款产品几乎因为高达两位数的亏损而崩盘,还有一款产品则因为向公众误报自身历史回报率而受到美国证交会调查。另一家战术产品巨头嘉信理财旗下90亿美元的Windhaven Diversified Growth产品,2014年的回报率几乎为零。战术策略原来不过如此。
周二在西弗吉尼亚州的贝灵顿一个人在雪地里行走。星期二飓风桑迪使得西弗吉尼亚州的部分地区被超过一英尺的雪所覆盖。
同时,根据这一最新调查显示,2015年我国男女比例的差距也有所缩小。从性别构成看,男女人口性别比例已由2010年的105.2降至去年的105.02。

94258元!北京市发布2018年全口径城镇单位就业人员平均工资

References

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